They know their letters! Now what?

Participants in CREATE could be considered to have finished their first level of adult literacy, roughly equivalent to a first primer, when all the phonemes in the language have been introduced.  CREATE should not end at this point, however.  The brainstorming list can be further used to create an intermediate level of units with approximately the same number as the first basic level, thus giving new readers an opportunity to continue using their skills while still dealing with issues relevant to their communities and everyday lives.  I recommend that levels be used to provide the structure of a starting date and an ending date for each circle and to give learners the sense of completion at intervals throughout their learning process.  The literacy component of this intermediate level could be less structured with the focus on giving ample opportunity for participants to express their own thoughts, feelings, and desires in writing and to learn from others’ experiences, thoughts, and feelings in reading.  Any number of levels can be conceived using this method, but it is advisable to have the participants take more and more of the decision-making responsibilities until they are essentially conducting their own discussion groups about issues in their community about which they would like to take action.  Participants who are very interested in continuing these types of discussions should be encouraged to consider being trained to become a facilitator of CREATE for other circles.

The following table contains a list of graphics that have been used in past REFLECT programs; all of these and many more are appropriate for CREATE.

Type of Graphic Focus Description
Map Household Shows all the houses in the community and a feature of each house such as number of people living in each or the type of materials used (See an example here.)
Agriculture Shows the locations of different crops, changing trends over the years, or levels of productivity (See an example here.)
Resources Identifies access to and control of resources (See an example for natural resources here and an example for human resources here.)
Land Tenure Represents ownership of land, whether individual, cooperative, or large landowner; can match land ownership to land use and access
Calendars Rainfall Represents climate patterns and trends; can lead to discussions about drought and floods and their effect (See an example here.)
Agriculture Plots the time in which different activities associated with each crop occur (clearing, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, storing, selling, etc.)
Gender Workload Represents the main activities of men and women through the year; can lead to structured reflection on gender roles (See an example of a children’s workload calendar here.)
Health Identifies principal local diseases and represents their relative occurrence through the year; can lead to discussion on why different illnesses occur more often at different times (See an example here.)
Income and Expenditure Explores patterns for a typical family through the year, itemized by source of income and type of expenditure
Matrices Crops Analyzes each crop grown against a set of criteria
Health Describes the curative strategies followed for different illnesses; encourages participants to analyze their understanding of the different causes of illnesses (See an example regarding herbal remedies here and an example of curative strategies here.)
Credit Shows the sources of credit available to participants (family, friends, money lenders, banks, etc.) and the uses made of the credit
Household Decisions Shows involvement of each family member in discussing, planning, and carrying out decisions in different areas of household life
Chapati or Venn Diagrams Influence Represents internal and external influences on the community or an individual (See an example here.)
Power Relations Shows the powerful individuals within the community (or outside of the community) and the relationships and groupings between them
Timelines People or Organizations Shows major and milestone events as well as influential people in either the past, present, or future of a community, organization, family, or individual
Flow Diagrams Processes Represents the steps involved in various processes (weaving, dying cloth, making a staple food, etc.)

Table:  Types of Graphics Suitable for Use in CREATE

 

Community Map

This is a very simple example of a community map that can be used in the CREATE program. Community maps show all the houses in the community and a feature of each house such as number of people living in each or the type of materials used.

Community maps show all the houses in the community and a feature of each house such as number of people living in each or the type of materials used.

 

This map is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Human Resources Map

This is a very simple example of a map of human resources that can be used in the CREATE program. Human resources maps show who are considered resources by the community and where they are located.

Human-Resources-Map

 

This map is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Chapati Diagram on Childbirth

This is a very simple example of a chapati diagram on childbirth that can be used in the CREATE program. In this diagram, the closeness of each circle to the woman in the center represents the merit given to these people as sources of knowledge about childbirth by women in the literacy circle.

A chapati diagram showing the amount of input certain relationships have in childbirth issues for a pregnant woman

 

This chapati diagram is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Curative Strategies

This is a very simple example of a matrix of curative strategies that can be used in the CREATE program. This matrix describes the curative strategies followed for different illnesses and can also be used to encourage participants to analyze their understanding of the different causes of illnesses.

A Curative strategy matrix showing the number of people who use hospitals, pharmacies, medicinal herbs, traditional healers and prayer to treat malaria, infected cuts, broken bones, rheumatism, and dysentery

A Curative strategy matrix showing the number of people who use hospitals, pharmacies, medicinal herbs, traditional healers and prayer to treat malaria, infected cuts, broken bones, rheumatism, and dysentery

 

This matrix is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Herbal Medicine Matrix

This is a very simple example of an herbal medicine matrix that can be used in the CREATE program. An herbal medicine matrix describes the curative strategies followed for different illnesses and can be used to encourage participants to analyze their understanding of the different causes of illnesses. I recommend that participants use actual leaves of each herb in making this matrix if possible. These can be labelled if the facilitator knows the names of the herbs; otherwise, the facilitator can research and write the names in the following lesson.

An herbal medicine matrix to show the number of people who use a certain herb to treat a certain ailment

 

This herbal medicine matrix is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Health Calendar

This is a very simple example of a health calendar that can be used in the CREATE program. Health calendars identify principal local diseases and represent their relative occurrence through the year. This type of calendar can lead to discussion on why different illnesses occur more often at different times of the year.

A health calendar showing frequency of malaria, infected cuts, broken bones, malnutrition, and dysentery over the course of 12 months

 

This is a very simple example of a health calendar that can be used in the CREATE program. Health calendars identify principal local diseases and represent their relative occurrence through the year. This type of calendar can lead to discussion on why different illnesses occur more often at different times of the year.

Children’s work calendar

This is a very simple example of a children’s work calendar that can be used in the CREATE program. This type of work calendar represents the times of year when children are needed to help their families and communities. These can be used to determine the best times to implement school programs. Work calendars can also be created to represent the main activities of men and women through the year. Both types of calendar can lead to structured reflection on gender roles.

A Children's work calendar comparing the number of boys and girls working during any given month

This children’s work calendar is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.

Natural Resources Map

This is a very simple example of a natural resources map that can be used in the CREATE program. Maps of natural resources identify access to and control of sources of resources like water and wood. These maps can lead to discussions of environmental issues.

Natural Resources Map depicting locations of nearby trees, houses, roads, mountains, water sources and herbs

This map is based on the descriptions and illustrations in the REFLECT Mother Manual (Archer & Cottingham, 1996).  All of the sample graphics on this website are intended to help facilitators and planners to visualize completed graphics rather than to give a standard for how the graphics should look.